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Chapter 9 is Paul’s concern for the physical nation of Israel and their failure to receive what they desired. Earlier, he said there was much in the way of blessing from God to them in receiving God’s oracles (3:2). Now he resumes that thought, but brings it to an ending that is contrary to what the physical nation (Israel) anticipated. The blessings of God are His to give because of His sovereignty. In this context, the blessings God gave Israel were not because of any partiality God had toward an exclusive people (cf. 2:11, 16), but because of who He is, the Lord of all. In fact, though physical Israel is not in the Lord’s plan to save, it is still the case that Israel will be saved. The Israel in this case is spiritual Israel, all those who call upon the Lord, being children of the promise (9:6-7). Thus, His sovereignty is not exclusive to physical Israel, but includes all those who live on the earth (10:12-13). This includes Esau, Pharaoh and the salvation of the Gentiles. This point relative to the salvation of the Gentiles takes the reader into chapter 10.